Organizational research and theory of motivation to take into account the need to get the most out of business for business or business ideas is a very twentieth century phenomenon. After the industrial revolution, large numbers of workers in mills and factories needed to produce products at factories, where agricultural and industrial plants were being transformed into small-scale families or joint units. In the early days of industrialization in the West, a slave labor or indented labor, including child labor in hunting, could be used at the disposal of ruling parties.
After two word wars and radically changed social, economic and political environment, capital owners could no longer handle labor as disposable goods. Trade unions, communism and demand for universal education in Western and Western democracies, along with global markets, mean that the old methods of almost extended, recurring labor (& dark satanic gravel) share of the past. New articles such as psychology, sociology and economics emerged. Unlike natural science such as physics, chemistry and even biology, building in social sciences often taught and was uneven and much less cumulative, reliable or generally valid and appropriate (see Gillespie below). Organizational behavior and management of science developed together with advances in social sciences.
The & # 39; carrot and stick & # 39; approach to early theory of debt owning writes Frederick Winslow Taylor. He considered the term "science management" for the later term simply Taylorism "advised to break down the tasks in their simplest elements so that robots in coordination could do a task without having to think." All the clues were removed from the store floor and handled by managers alone, this is the principle of understanding thought from practice. This approach might have worked with early immigrants in the United States without high linguistic skills, but its efficiency was short-lived. However, in automated plants using high-tech 24-hour solutions to work with low or no human input, the rule still applies.
Douglas McGregor named Taylorism and similar to the management and management practices of the workforce, Theory X, replacing Theory Y, which gave employees greater autonomy and well-being at work as long as they met a He was appealing to a more skilled and educated workplace where the workplace became increasingly rebuilt over time. McGregor wrote the work of Elton Mayo in what became known as Hawthorne Studies, conducted in 1927 and 1932 at the Western Electric plant in Cicero, Illinois.
Gillespie conducted a detailed discussion of Mayo's Hawthorne plant experiments and asked all the ethics to consider such work as objective science, although the Mayo result was widely discussed and agreed between years. Gillespie believes that it is not only the goal of scientific methodology & # 39; and what is agreed as scientific knowledge is produced and not discovered & # 39; (Ibid). Every type of intervention that Mayo instituted at the factory, including changing the lighting, changing work hours and giving more or less breaks, ended all the more by employees producing more with each intervention of social scientists. The & Hawthorne Effect & # 39; have been put together as workers become more productive because they know they have a sympathetic reaction. In other words, psychological impetus to be named, participant and promoted to find important & # 39;
Industrial trade must be based on "human relations", which was the name approved by Theory Y School of Motivators. Finally, they found that an informal group of lives developed among factory workers and the rules they developed impacted productivity. In short, the workplace is a social system and managers must ignore the fact that their costs. Employees develop among their responsibility to work well. Such codes of conduct were approved by Japanese car manufacturers, and until recently, they were very successful when they conquered the world market.
The London Tavistock Institute was very similar to a type of research to work coal miners. Scientists realized that simplification and specialization at work did not work with uncertainty and unusual tasks. They advocate half independent groups. At the same time, great work had been done outside the framework that was influencing incentives. This was the main work of Abraham Maslow, who pointed to the hierarchy of human needs, which requires satisfaction to form the lowest level of physiological needs that meet the standards of creativity and self-esteem. According to Maslow, the need is once satisfied, no longer encourages. Relationship between money and benefits to meet consumer needs. Once these needs have been met, the interest is gone … workers can be most productive when their workplace perspective meets the needs of those who are higher.
While McGregor used Maslow to reinforce his theory, Y has characterized Maslow's theory with a much more complex hierarchy being labeled Theory Z. In a brief context and vision as a pyramid with a broad foundation first:
– Physiological needs (lowest)
– Security Needs;
– Love / Relationship Needed;
– Requires Needs; and
– Automation Requirements (Highest)
It's one impressive theory of motivation (among many less known) that needs to be explored. This is Herzberg's two factor & # 39; theory of motivation. & # 39; The theory was first drawn from the inspection of events in the lives of engineers and accountants. At least 16 other studies, with a large number of residents (including some in the Communist countries) have since been completed, and the original one of the most recurring research in the field of staff skills & # 39; (on .cit.). He assumed that factors related to job satisfaction (and motivation) are separate from the factors that lead to employee dissatisfaction … In contrast to job satisfaction, unemployment is not unemployment but not unemployment; and in the same way, the opposite discontent job satisfaction is not job satisfaction but no dissatisfaction at work.
Herzberg's sanity can be registered as security, status, workplaces, personal life, wages, supervision and business practices. His higher order, motivations can be recorded as growth, progress, responsibility, work, recognition and a very excellent understanding of performance, which corresponds to automation in Maslow's hierarchy.
After investigating the changed nature of motivational science, reflected in the changing nature of international social, political and economic landscape over the years, this essay also included in Maslow's General Theory of Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg & # 39; s work sets double theories of motivation. Since all the social sciences continue to address so many aspects, recent theories such as total quality management (TQM) and business technology reengineering (BPR) have evolved to take into account current organizational concerns.