It is important to understand the fundamental motivation because they are the basis of contemporary research and have led to ideology for innovative work. These age-old teachings are still produced by management practices in the old and traditional industry and interesting even in modest modern installations. They have put a time test for ease of understanding and intuitive logic. The initiator among these theories that should find his clue is a reference to an attempt by Robert Owen that is of paternalistic nature. He was the owner of a textile factory in Scotland. Owen followed employees related to machines. Both had to be careful and take care to work well. He introduced a housing and business shop for his employees in a concession at the workplace. Such facilities were considered revolutionary in the early 19th century when workers worked in the most unimaginable and worst situations.
o Carrot and Stick Approach by Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham developed his ideas about workers in the early years of the Industrial Revolution around 1800. Official nations are naturally self-reliant and all their actions are based on efforts to increase satisfaction and reduce pain. He saw that large rewards or threats to punishment or punishment chose only the employee to perform his job. The theory, for example, refers to the story of a donkey that makes him put either carrot into his mouth and looks like a character on his back.
Inductions of some kind of "carrot" such as bonuses, better payment instruments, encourage employees to apply effort while punishing in the form of & nbsp; such as fear of losing work, consequences or withdrawal of monetary benefits,
o "Five Need Hierarchy Theory" by Abraham Maslow:
Maslow saw that each individual is ruled by a hierarchy of five needs, ie
1. Physiological needs aimed at to fulfill his basic requirements as
2. Security or security needs to be protected against physical and emotional harm.
3. Social needs people seek work social groups to meet their needs to belong to
4. Attitude needs that come into effect when people are in need of promise. They want them to be highly respectful and strive to achieve their status, energy, and respect in their lives. Gin eyes like, among others. Need for opinion is of two types. Internal respect calls for factors such as independence, performance, self-esteem and external effort such as attention, recognition.
5. Automation w It's the need to become what you can become. It is the pursuit of real potential and true respect and endeavors to gain self-esteem.
The satisfaction of physiological and safety needs falls within the category of lower order needs, but social, opinion and need for automation are classified under higher order needs.
While Maslow's theory meets intuitive logic and is very easy to understand, she does not find support in empirical research. In addition, the lower order must be satisfied first before crossing the hierarchy. The theory calls for rigid hierarchy.
As regards employee focus, practitioners should lead to the definition of the level of the hierarchy that the employee is keeping and striving to meet the needs or needs beyond that level in accordance with hierarchy needs.
o Theory X and Theory Y by Douglas McGregor:
McGregor saw institutional managers behave with employees based on their proposed views of human nature. Category & # 39; X & # 39; managers gather employees in a negative sense, but the category "Y & # 39; sees human opinion in a positive way.
1. They assume that employees are shut and will deliver work at any time .
2. They must be effectively forced, forced or threatened by the dire consequences to show them output.
3. They have the will to stay away from responsibility and will
4. Employees submit great emphasis on self-confidence over anything else and showing little ambition.
1. & # 39; Managers see employees struggling to work and look natural as play or rest.
2. They apply self-control and self-defense if committed to these objectives.
3. They accept responsibility and seek to resolve all problems in the company.
o & # 39; Motivation Hygiene Theory of Frederick Herzberg:
The theory postulates that factors such as achievement, recognition and quality of work content, demanding work, progress and growth are several factors that help motivate employees to emphasize their work. These factors in the work of those who motivate.
But according to Herzberg, opposition pleasure is not always dissatisfied. In an organizational context, there is no satisfaction and opposition to dissatisfaction is not dissatisfied and have not had any role in encouraging incentives among employees.
Factors such as corporate orientation, supervision, administration, wages when used cause employee dissatisfaction. If these dissatisfies are removed, they do not have any effects that cause employee satisfaction. It's just that will be dissatisfaction anymore. Removing dissatisfiers only adds and blesses peace in a situation.
However, this is also subject to studies with no links between productivity and incentives. What is talking about is pleasure.